Send to

Choose Destination
Virology. 2012 Jun 5;427(2):189-97. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2012.01.039. Epub 2012 Mar 3.

Evidence of recombination and positive selection in cetacean papillomaviruses.

Author information

Hubbs-SeaWorld Research Institute, Center for Marine Veterinary Virology, San Diego, CA 92109, USA.


Papillomaviruses (PVs) are small DNA viruses that have been associated with increased epithelial proliferation. Over one hundred PV types have been identified in humans; however, only three have been identified in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) to date. Using rolling circle amplification and degenerate PCR, we identified four novel PV genomes of bottlenose dolphins. TtPV4, TtPV5 and TtPV6 were identified in genital lesions while TtPV7 was identified in normal genital mucosa. Bayesian analysis of the full-length L1 genes found that TtPV4 and TtPV7 group within the Upsilonpapillomavirus genus while TtPV5 and TtPV6 group with Omikronpapillomavirus. However, analysis of the E1 gene did not distinguish these genera, implying that these genes may not share a common history, consistent with recombination. Recombination analyses identified several probable events. Signals of positive selection were found mostly in the E1 and E2 genes. Recombination and diversifying selection pressures constitute important driving forces of cetacean PV evolution.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center