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Urol Oncol. 2012 Mar-Apr;30(2):199-211. doi: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2011.10.010.

Bladder cancer risk from occupational and environmental exposures.

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Section of Urology, University of Chicago Hospitals, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.


Approximately 50% of bladder cancer incidence in the United States has been attributed to known carcinogens, mainly from cigarette smoking. Following the identification of this important causative factor, many investigators have attempted to identify other major causes of bladder cancer in the environment. Genetic and epigenetic alterations related to carcinogenesis in the bladder have been linked to environmental and occupational factors unrelated to cigarette smoking and may account for a significant portion of bladder cancer cases in non-smokers. The interaction between genetics and exposures may modulate bladder cancer risk and influence the differing incidence, progression, and mortality of this disease in different genders and races. Comparative molecular studies are underway to measure the relative effects of environment and inheritance to account for observed differences in the epidemiology of bladder cancer. The use of geospatial tools and population-based data will offer further insight into the environmentally-linked causes of bladder cancer.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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