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PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e32291. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032291. Epub 2012 Feb 23.

Global transcriptome profiling of the pine shoot beetle, Tomicus yunnanensis (Coleoptera: Scolytinae).

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Key Laboratory of Forest Disaster Warning and Control of Yunnan Province, College of Forestry, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming, China.



The pine shoot beetle Tomicus yunnanensis (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) is an economically important pest of Pinus yunnanensis in southwestern China. Developed resistance to insecticides due to chemical pesticides being used for a long time is a factor involved in its serious damage, which poses a challenge for management. In addition, highly efficient adaptation to divergent environmental ecologies results in this pest posing great potential threat to pine forests. However, the molecular mechanisms remain unknown as only limited nucleotide sequence data for this species is available.


In this study, we applied next generation sequencing (Illumina sequencing) to sequence the adult transcriptome of T. yunnanensis. A total of 51,822,230 reads were obtained. They were assembled into 140,702 scaffolds, and 60,031 unigenes. The unigenes were further functionally annotated with gene descriptions, Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG). In total, 80,932 unigenes were classified into GO, 13,599 unigenes were assigned to COG, and 33,875 unigenes were found in KO categories. A biochemical pathway database containing 219 predicted pathways was also created based on the annotations. In depth analysis of the data revealed a large number of genes related to insecticides resistance and heat shock protein genes associated with environmental stress.


The results facilitate the investigations of molecular resistance mechanisms to insecticides and environmental stress. This study lays the foundation for future functional genomics studies of important biological questions of this pest.

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