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Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012 Apr;7(4):595-603. doi: 10.2215/CJN.09300911. Epub 2012 Mar 1.

Influence of urine creatinine on the relationship between the albumin-to-creatinine ratio and cardiovascular events.

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1
Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:

In the albumin-to-creatinine ratio (spot-ACR), urine creatinine corrects for tonicity but also reflects muscle mass. Low muscle mass is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). We hypothesized that the spot-ACR would be higher in women, lower-weight persons, and older individuals, independent of timed urine albumin excretion (24hr-UAE), and accordingly, that spot-ACR would be more strongly associated with CVD events than 24hr-UAE in these subgroups.

DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & METHODS:

2627 PREVEND (Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-stage Disease) participants with 24hr-UAE <30 mg/d were followed for CVD events for 11 years. Cox regression evaluated associations of spot-ACR and 24hr-UAE with CVD events by sex, weight, and age.

RESULTS:

Female sex (26%), lower weight (2% per 5 kg), and older age (4% per 5 years) were associated with higher spot-ACR independent of 24hr-UAE (P<0.001). Spot urine albumin concentration (hazard ratio [HR], 1.26 per ln-SD higher) and 1/spot urine creatinine concentration (HR, 1.16 per ln-SD higher) were associated with CVD events. Spot-ACR was more strongly associated with CVD events than either component of the ratio (HR, 1.41 per ln-SD higher). Associations of spot-ACR ≥10 mg/g versus less (HR, 2.33) and 24hr-UAE ≥10 mg/d versus less (HR, 2.09) with CVD events were similar, and there were no significant differences across subgroups (P for interactions >0.06).

CONCLUSIONS:

In community-living individuals with 24hr-UAE <30 mg/d, spot-ACR is higher in women, older persons, and lower-weight persons, independent of 24hr-UAE. Low spot urine creatinine is associated with CVD risk, but high urine albumin is a stronger determinant of the association of spot-ACR with CVD than is low urine creatinine.

PMID:
22383750
PMCID:
PMC3315344
DOI:
10.2215/CJN.09300911
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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