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J Exp Bot. 2012 May;63(8):3061-70. doi: 10.1093/jxb/ers022. Epub 2012 Feb 29.

The 14-3-3 proteins of Arabidopsis regulate root growth and chloroplast development as components of the photosensory system.

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  • 1Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology Program and Horticultural Sciences Department, Interdisciplinary Center for Biotechnology Research, 1301 Fifield, PO Box 110690, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.


The 14-3-3 proteins specifically bind a number of client proteins to influence important pathways, including flowering timing via the photosensory system. For instance, 14-3-3 proteins influence the photosensory system through interactions with Constans (CO) protein. 14-3-3 associations with the photosensory system were further studied in this investigation using 14-3-3 T-DNA insertion mutants to study root and chloroplast development. The 14-3-3 μ T-DNA insertion mutant, 14-3-3μ-1, had shorter roots than the wild type and the difference in root length could be influenced by light intensity. The 14-3-3 ν T-DNA insertion mutants also had shorter roots, but only when grown under narrow-bandwidth red light. Five-day-old 14-3-3 T-DNA insertion and co mutants all had increased root greening compared with the wild type, which was influenced by light wavelength and intensity. However, beyond 10 d of growth, 14-3-3μ-1 roots did not increase in greening as much as wild-type roots. This study reveals new developmental roles of 14-3-3 proteins in roots and chloroplasts, probably via association with the photosensory system.

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