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Nat Rev Cancer. 2012 Mar 1;12(4):289-97. doi: 10.1038/nrc3223.

Unmasking the immune recognition of prostate cancer with CTLA4 blockade.

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  • 1Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco CA 94143-0511, USA.


Although cancer cells can be immunogenic, tumour progression is associated with the evasion of immunosurveillance, the promotion of tumour tolerance and even the production of pro-tumorigenic factors by immune cells. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4) represents a crucial immune checkpoint, the blockade of which can potentiate anti-tumour immunity. CTLA4-blocking antibodies are now an established therapeutic approach for malignant melanoma, and clinical trials with CTLA4-specific antibodies in prostate cancer have also shown clinical activity. This treatment may provide insights into the targets that the immune system recognizes to drive tumour regression, and could potentially improve both outcome and toxicity for patients with prostate cancer.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00323882 NCT01303705 NCT01216436 NCT00702923 NCT00064129 NCT00170157 NCT00124670 NCT00861614 NCT01057810 NCT00050596.

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