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Acta Paediatr. 2012 Jun;101(6):624-30. doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2012.02646.x. Epub 2012 Mar 24.

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with oppositional defiant disorder in Swedish children - an open study of collaborative problem solving.

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The Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.



To evaluate collaborative problem solving (CPS) in Swedish 6-13-year-old children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD).


Seventeen families completed 6-10 sessions of CPS training. Primary outcome measures were SNAP-IV [attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and ODD scores] and Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) scores at baseline, post-intervention and 6 months later. Secondary outcome measures were the Conners' 10-item scale and the Family Burden of Illness Module (FBIM).


All 17 participants completed the intervention. The whole group had significant reductions in SNAP-IV ODD, ADHD, total Conners' and FBIM scores, both at post-intervention and at 6-month follow-up. Eight of the children, although significantly improved on ODD scores and the Conners' emotional lability subscale at post-intervention, had almost no improvement in hyperactivity/impulsivity. Post-intervention, this group received stimulant medication for their ADHD. CGI-I scores of much improved or very much improved were reached by 53% (9/17) of all at post-intervention, and by 81% (13/16) at 6-month follow-up.


Collaborative problem solving significantly reduced ODD, ADHD and emotional lability symptoms. A subgroup improved in their ADHD symptoms only after adding stimulant medication.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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