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Br J Radiol. 2012 Jul;85(1015):865-75. doi: 10.1259/bjr/27314678. Epub 2012 Feb 28.

Ultrasound imaging of the anal sphincter complex: a review.

Author information

1
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa. zeelha.abdool@gmail.com

Abstract

Endoanal ultrasound is now regarded as the gold standard for evaluating anal sphincter pathology in the investigation of anal incontinence. The advent of three-dimensional ultrasound has further improved our understanding of the two-dimensional technique. Endoanal ultrasound requires specialised equipment and its relative invasiveness has prompted clinicians to explore alternative imaging techniques. Transvaginal and transperineal ultrasound have been recently evaluated as alternative imaging modalities. However, the need for technique standardisation, validation and reporting is of paramount importance. We conducted a MEDLINE search (1950 to February 2010) and critically reviewed studies using the three imaging techniques in evaluating anal sphincter integrity.

PMID:
22374273
PMCID:
PMC3474057
DOI:
10.1259/bjr/27314678
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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