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Sensors (Basel). 2012;12(1):686-703. doi: 10.3390/s120100686. Epub 2012 Jan 10.

A feedfordward adaptive controller to reduce the imaging time of large-sized biological samples with a SPM-based multiprobe station.

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SIC-BIO, Bioelectronics and Nanobioengineering Group, Department of Electronics, University of Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1, 08028, Barcelona, Spain.


The time required to image large samples is an important limiting factor in SPM-based systems. In multiprobe setups, especially when working with biological samples, this drawback can make impossible to conduct certain experiments. In this work, we present a feedfordward controller based on bang-bang and adaptive controls. The controls are based in the difference between the maximum speeds that can be used for imaging depending on the flatness of the sample zone. Topographic images of Escherichia coli bacteria samples were acquired using the implemented controllers. Results show that to go faster in the flat zones, rather than using a constant scanning speed for the whole image, speeds up the imaging process of large samples by up to a 4× factor.


adaptive control; bacteria; biological samples; fast imaging; feedforward control; nanorobotics; scanning probe microscopy

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