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PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e31435. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031435. Epub 2012 Feb 20.

Verticillium longisporum infection affects the leaf apoplastic proteome, metabolome, and cell wall properties in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Author information

1
Department of Forest Botany and Tree Physiology, Büsgen-Institute, Georg August University, Göttingen, Germany.

Abstract

Verticillium longisporum (VL) is one of the most devastating diseases in important oil crops from the family of Brassicaceae. The fungus resides for much time of its life cycle in the extracellular fluid of the vascular system, where it cannot be controlled by conventional fungicides. To obtain insights into the biology of VL-plant interaction in the apoplast, the secretome consisting of the extracellular proteome and metabolome as well as cell wall properties were studied in the model Brassicaceae, Arabidopsis thaliana. VL infection resulted in increased production of cell wall material with an altered composition of carbohydrate polymers and increased lignification. The abundance of several hundred soluble metabolites changed in the apoplast of VL-infected plants including signalling and defence compounds such as glycosides of salicylic acid, lignans and dihydroxybenzoic acid as well as oxylipins. The extracellular proteome of healthy leaves was enriched in antifungal proteins. VL caused specific increases in six apoplast proteins (three peroxidases PRX52, PRX34, P37, serine carboxypeptidase SCPL20, α-galactosidase AGAL2 and a germin-like protein GLP3), which have functions in defence and cell wall modification. The abundance of a lectin-like, chitin-inducible protein (CILLP) was reduced. Since the transcript levels of most of the induced proteins were not elevated until late infection time points (>20 dpi), whereas those of CILLP and GLP3 were reduced at earlier time points, our results may suggest that VL enhances its virulence by rapid down-regulation and delay of induction of plant defence genes.

PMID:
22363647
PMCID:
PMC3282744
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0031435
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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