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J Pediatr. 2012 Aug;161(2):201-7.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.01.016. Epub 2012 Feb 22.

Demographic and clinical correlates of diabetes-related quality of life among youth with type 1 diabetes.

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Department of Research and Evaluation, Kaiser Permanente Southern California, Pasadena, CA 91101, USA.



To evaluate the reliability and cluster structure of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Type 1 Diabetes Module 3.0 (PedsQL-T1DM) and associated subscales and to explore the associations between PedsQL-T1DM total score and demographic and clinical characteristics and clinical indicators among a large racially/ethnically diverse cohort of youth with type 1 diabetes.


Principal components analysis was conducted on responses from the PedsQL-T1DM child self-report forms completed by SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study participants aged ≥ 5 years. Multivariate linear regression models were fit to examine the associations among PedsQL-T1DM total score, demographic and clinical characteristics, and clinical indicators.


The sample comprised 2602 youth with a mean age of 13.6 ± 4.1 years and a mean T1DM duration of 62.1 ± 47.0 months. Principal components analysis did not support the 5 existing PedsQL-T1DM subscales. In multivariate analyses, the PedsQL-T1DM total score was negatively and significantly associated with younger age (5-7 years), female sex, receiving insulin by injection (vs pump), having parents without a college degree, Medicaid/Medicare insurance, and having a comorbid medical condition. Youth with poor glycemic control based on their age-specific hemoglobin A1c target values and those with depressive symptoms had significantly lower PedsQL-T1DM scores than their counterparts with good control and no or limited depressive symptoms.


This study has identified sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of youth with T1DM more likely to experience poor diabetes-specific quality of life. The association of lower PedsQL-T1DM scores with depressive symptoms and poor glycemic control is especially concerning and may be the focus of future interventions and studies.

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