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Br J Haematol. 2012 May;157(3):370-80. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2141.2012.09065.x. Epub 2012 Feb 24.

Tissue factor-positive monocytes in children with sickle cell disease: correlation with biomarkers of haemolysis.

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Division of Research Haematology, Department of Pediatrics, Marian Anderson Comprehensive Sickle Cell Anaemia Care and Research Centre, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.


Tissue Factor (TF) initiates thrombin generation, and whole blood TF (WBTF) is elevated in sickle cell disease (SCD). We sought to identify the presence of TF-positive monocytes in SCD and their relationship with the other coagulation markers including WBTF, microparticle-associated TF, thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) complexes and D-dimer. Whether major SCD-related pathobiological processes, including haemolysis, inflammation and endothelial activation, contribute to the coagulation abnormalities was also studied. The cohort comprised children with SCD (18 HbSS, 12 HbSC, mean age 3·6 years). We demonstrated elevated levels of TF-positive monocytes in HbSS, which correlated with WBTF, TAT and D-dimer (P = 0·02 to P = 0·0003). While TF-positive monocytes, WBTF, TAT and D-dimer correlated with several biomarkers of haemolysis, inflammation and endothelial activation in univariate analyses, in multiple regression models the haemolytic markers (reticulocytes and lactate dehydrogenase) contributed exclusively to the association with all four coagulant markers evaluated. The demonstration that haemolysis is the predominant operative pathology in the associated perturbations of coagulation in HbSS at a young age provides additional evidence for the early use of therapeutic agents, such as hydroxycarbamide to reduce the haemolytic component of this disease.

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