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Korean J Physiol Pharmacol. 2011 Dec;15(6):353-61. doi: 10.4196/kjpp.2011.15.6.353. Epub 2011 Dec 27.

The Neuroprotective Potential of Cyanidin-3-glucoside Fraction Extracted from Mulberry Following Oxygen-glucose Deprivation.

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Department of Pharmacology, Cell Death Disease Research Center, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701, Korea.


In this study, cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) fraction extracted from the mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) was investigated for its neuroprotective effects against oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and glutamate-induced cell death in rat primary cortical neurons. Cell membrane damage and mitochondrial function were assessed by LDH release and MTT reduction assays, respectively. A time-course study of OGD-induced cell death of primary cortical neurons at 7 days in vitro (DIV) indicated that neuronal death was OGD duration-dependent. It was also demonstrated that OGD for 3.5 h resulted in approximately 50% cell death, as determined by the LDH release assay. Treatments with mulberry C3G fraction prevented membrane damage and preserved the mitochondrial function of the primary cortical neurons exposed to OGD for 3.5 h in a concentration-dependent manner. Glutamate-induced cell death was more pronounced in DIV-9 and DIV-11 cells than that in DIV-7 neurons, and an application of 50µM glutamate was shown to induce approximately 40% cell death in DIV-9 neurons. Interestingly, treatment with mulberry C3G fraction did not provide a protective effect against glutamate-induced cell death in primary cortical neurons. On the other hand, treatment with mulberry C3G fraction maintained the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in primary cortical neurons exposed to OGD as assessed by the intensity of rhodamine-123 fluorescence. These results therefore suggest that the neuroprotective effects of mulberry C3G fraction are mediated by the maintenance of the MMP and mitochondrial function but not by attenuating glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in rat primary cortical neurons.


Cyanidin-3-glucoside; Glutamate; Morus alba L.; Neuroprotection; Oxygen-glucose deprivation

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