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Viruses. 2011 Dec;3(12):2412-24. doi: 10.3390/v3122412. Epub 2011 Dec 7.

The use of fluorescence microscopy to study the association between herpesviruses and intrinsic resistance factors.

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The Medical Research Council (MRC), University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, 8 Church Street, Glasgow G11 5JR, Scotland, UK.


Intrinsic antiviral resistance is a branch of antiviral defence that involves constitutively expressed cellular proteins that act within individual infected cells. In recent years it has been discovered that components of cellular nuclear structures known as ND10 or PML nuclear bodies contribute to intrinsic resistance against a variety of viruses, notably of the herpesvirus family. Several ND10 components are rapidly recruited to sites that are closely associated with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) genomes during the earliest stages of infection, and this property correlates with the efficiency of ND10 mediated restriction of HSV-1 replication. Similar but distinct recruitment of certain DNA damage response proteins also occurs during infection. These recruitment events are inhibited in a normal wild type HSV-1 infection by the viral regulatory protein ICP0. HSV‑1 mutants that do not express ICP0 are highly susceptible to repression through intrinsic resistance factors, but they replicate more efficiently in cells depleted of certain ND10 proteins or in which ND10 component recruitment is inefficient. This article presents the background to this recruitment phenomenon and summaries how it is conveniently studied by fluorescence microscopy.


Herpes Simplex Virus type 1; ICP0; ND10; PML nuclear bodies; SUMO; intrinsic antiviral resistance

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