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Obstet Gynecol. 2012 Mar;119(3):560-5. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e31824758e0.

Maternal weight gain in women who develop gestational diabetes mellitus.

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Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio 44109, USA.



To assess maternal weight gain before 24 weeks in women developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared with controls with normal glucose tolerance.


This was a retrospective cohort study of maternal weight gain. Women developing GDM were matched to three controls by self-reported prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), maternal age, race, and parity. Women without documented pregravid or 22- to 24-week weights and multiple gestations were excluded. The primary outcome was weight gain through 24 weeks of gestation.


Six hundred fifty-two women (163 in the GDM group and 489 controls) underwent chart review. There were no significant differences in race (36% compared with 36% African American, P=.99), age (28.7 ± 6.3 years compared with 29.4 ± 6.9 years, P=.26) or prepregnancy BMI (31.7 ± 8.2 compared with 31.8 ± 8.6, P=.88). Maternal weight gain was higher in the GDM group than in the control group (14.8 compared with 11.2 lb, P<.001). When controlling for prepregnancy BMI, overweight (18.6 compared with 12.9 lb, P<.004), and obese (12.6 compared with 8.8 lb, P<.008), GDM participants gained significantly more weight by 24 weeks. Both diet-controlled (A1) and insulin-requiring (A2) GDM had higher weight gain compared with controls (control compared with A1: 11.2 compared with 15.3 lb, P=.029; control compared with A2: 11.2 compared with 14.6 lb, P=.018. No difference was found between A1 and A2 patients (P=.942).


Women who develop GDM have higher gestational weight gain through 24 weeks. Gestational weight gain is a significant risk factor for GDM in the overweight or obese patient but not in patients who were underweight or had a normal BMI before pregnancy.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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