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Int J Dermatol. 2012 Mar;51(3):305-12. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-4632.2011.05077.x.

Mucocutaneous manifestation of pediatric human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in relation to degree of immunosuppression: a study of a West African population.

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1
Maitama District Hospital, Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria. docdoms@yahoo.com

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Mucocutaneous lesions occur at one point or the other during the course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. These lesions can be the initial presenting features but could also be a pointer to the presence of immunosuppression.

AIM AND OBJECTIVES:

This study was carried out to determine the pattern of mucocutaneous manifestation in children who have human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in relation to their level of immunosuppression.

METHODS:

One hundred children who were HIV seropositive aged 18months to 16years were evaluated for mucocutaneous lesions, and their degree of immunosuppression was also determined using total CD(4+) count or CD(4+) percentage. Another group of age and gender matched 100 HIV-negative children were also examined for mucocutaneous lesions.

RESULTS:

The mucocutaneous manifestations were more common among the subjects compared to controls (P=0.000). The overall prevalence among the seropositive and seronegative subjects was 64% and 12% respectively. The prevalence of mucocutaneous findings in children with severe, moderate, and no immunosuppression were 93.8%, 55.2%, and 46.2%, respectively. The lesions were significantly more common among those with moderate and severe immunosuppression compared to those with no immunosuppression (P=0.000). Multiple lesions were more frequent among those with severe immunosuppression. Oral thrush was the most frequent lesion (25.6%) among the subjects followed by pruritic papular eruption (20.7%) and dermatophytosis (14.1%). Severe and atypical forms of dermatophytosis and herpes ulcer were also observed among the subjects.

CONCLUSION:

This study shows that mucocutaneous lesions are common in children with HIV/AIDS and could be an early indicator of immune suppression. It is important to recognize them early in order to enhance early case detection and treatment.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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