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Sensors (Basel). 2011;11(11):10624-37. doi: 10.3390/s111110624. Epub 2011 Nov 8.

Surface x-ray diffraction results on the III-V droplet heteroepitaxy growth process for quantum dots: recent understanding and open questions.

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Applied Physics Department, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904, Israel.


In recent years, epitaxial growth of self-assembled quantum dots has offered a way to incorporate new properties into existing solid state devices. Although the droplet heteroepitaxy method is relatively complex, it is quite relaxed with respect to the material combinations that can be used. This offers great flexibility in the systems that can be achieved. In this paper we review the structure and composition of a number of quantum dot systems grown by the droplet heteroepitaxy method, emphasizing the insights that these experiments provide with respect to the growth process. Detailed structural and composition information has been obtained using surface X-ray diffraction analyzed by the COBRA phase retrieval method. A number of interesting phenomena have been observed: penetration of the dots into the substrate ("nano-drilling") is often encountered; interdiffusion and intermixing already start when the group III droplets are deposited, and structure and composition may be very different from the one initially intended.


MOVPE; direct methods; droplet-heteroepitaxy; quantum dots; surface X-ray diffraction

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