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Cell Signal. 2012 Jun;24(6):1150-62. doi: 10.1016/j.cellsig.2012.01.020. Epub 2012 Feb 4.

Autophagy in regulation of Toll-like receptor signaling.

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Department of Oral Microbiology, Division of Oral Infections and Health Sciences, Asahi University School of Dentistry, Hozumi, Japan.


Toll-like receptors (TLRs) serve as the major innate immune sensors for detection of specific molecular patterns on various pathogens. TLRs activate signaling events mainly by utilizing ubiquitin-dependent mechanisms. Recent research advances have provided evidence that TLR signaling is linked to induction of autophagy. Autophagy is currently known to affect both of the immune defense and suppression of inflammatory responses. In TLR-associated immune responses, autophagic lysis of intracellular microbes (called xenophagy) contributes to the former mechanism, while the latter seems to be mediated by the control of the mitochondrial integrity or selective autophagic clearance of aggregated signaling proteins (called aggrephagy). Several autophagy-related ubiquitin-binding proteins, such as SQSTM1/p62 and NDP52, mediate xenophagy and aggrephagy. In this review, we summarize the expanded knowledge regarding TLR signaling and autophagy signaling. After that, we will focus on autophagy-associated signaling downstream of TLRs and the effect of autophagy on TLR signaling, thus highlighting the signaling crosstalk between the TLR-associated innate immune responses and the regulation of innate immunity by xenophagy and aggrephagy.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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