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Arch Dis Child. 2012 Apr;97(4):343-9. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2011-300935. Epub 2012 Feb 10.

Continuous EEG monitoring in Kenyan children with non-traumatic coma.

Author information

1
Centre for Geographic Medicine Research-Coast, Kenya Medical Research Institute-Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Kilifi, Kenya. samgwer@gmail.com

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The aim of this study was to describe the EEG and clinical profile of seizures in children with non-traumatic coma, compare seizure detection by clinical observations with that by continuous EEG, and relate EEG features to outcome.

METHODS:

This prospective observational study was conducted at the paediatric high dependency unit of Kilifi District Hospital, Kenya. Children aged 9 months to 13 years presenting with acute coma were monitored by EEG for 72 h or until they regained consciousness or died. Poor outcome was defined as death or gross motor deficits at discharge.

RESULTS:

82 children (median age 2.8 (IQR 2.0-3.9) years) were recruited. An initial medium EEG amplitude (100-300 mV) was associated with less risk of poor outcome compared to low amplitude (≤100 mV) (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.7; p<0.01). 363 seizures in 28 (34%) children were observed: 240 (66%) were electrographic and 112 (31%) electroclinical. In 16 (20%) children, electrographic seizures were the only seizure types detected. The majority (63%) of electroclinical seizures had focal clinical features but appeared as generalised (79%) or focal with secondary generalisation (14%) on EEG. Occurrence of any seizure or status epilepticus during monitoring was associated with poor outcome (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 8.7; p=0.02 and OR 4.5, 95% CI 1.3 to 15.3; p<0.01, respectively).

CONCLUSION:

Initial EEG background amplitude is prognostic in paediatric non-traumatic coma. Clinical observations do not detect two out of three seizures. Seizures and status epilepticus after admission are associated with poor outcome.

PMID:
22328741
PMCID:
PMC3329232
DOI:
10.1136/archdischild-2011-300935
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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