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J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2012 Apr;143(4):896-903. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2011.09.074. Epub 2012 Feb 9.

Single-patch, 2-patch, and caval division techniques for repair of partial anomalous pulmonary venous connections: does it matter?

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Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.



We reviewed our experience with the single-patch, 2-patch, and caval division techniques for repair of a partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection.


From 1990 to 2009, 124 patients (65 male patients; 52%) were identified. The single-patch, two-patch, and caval division technique was used in 60 (49%), 24 (19%), and 40 (32%) patients, respectively. The median age was 34.5 years (range, 1-76). Of the 124 patients, 99 (80%) had an atrial septal defect.


There was no early mortality. Survival at 5, 10, and 15 years was 99%, 95%, and 82%, respectively. One patient (3%) in the caval division group required early reoperation for superior vena caval obstruction. All patients, exept for 3, had regained sinus rhythm at discharge. Late superior vena caval obstruction developed in 3 patients (7.5%) in the caval division group, 3 (5%) in the single-patch group, and 1 (4%) in the 2-patch group (Р = .5). Two patients underwent reoperation for late pulmonary vein obstruction: 1 (2%) in the single-patch group and 1 (4%) in the 2-patch group (P = .08). A permanent pacemaker was required in 3 patients (3%).


Surgical treatment of partial anomalous pulmonary venous connections is associated with excellent outcomes. The overall incidence of late superior vena caval or pulmonary vein stenosis is low. Although not significant, the 2-patch technique might be associated with a greater incidence of sinus node dysfunction and late pulmonary venous stenosis. The late development of superior vena caval obstruction is a concern with all techniques, necessitating close follow-up.

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