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Anaerobe. 2012 Jun;18(3):310-20. doi: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2012.01.003. Epub 2012 Feb 3.

Impact of enrofloxacin on the human intestinal microbiota revealed by comparative molecular analysis.

Author information

1
Division of Microbiology, National Center for Toxicological Research/U.S. FDA, Jefferson, AR 72079, USA.

Abstract

The indigenous human intestinal microbiota could be disrupted by residues of antibiotics in foods as well as therapeutically administered antibiotics to humans. These disruptions may lead to adverse health outcomes. To observe the possible impact of residues of antibiotics at concentrations below therapeutic levels on human intestinal microbiota, we performed studies using in vitro cultures of fecal suspensions from three individuals with 10 different concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 15, 25, 50 and 150 μg/ml) of the fluoroquinolone, enrofloxacin. The bacterial communities of the control and enrofloxacin dosed fecal samples were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. In addition, changes of functional gene expression were analyzed by a pyrosequencing-based random whole-community mRNA sequencing method. Although each individual had a unique microbial composition, the communities of all individuals were affected by enrofloxacin. The proportions of two phyla, namely, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria, were significantly reduced with increasing concentrations of enrofloxacin exposure, while the proportion of Firmicutes increased. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) using the Fast UniFrac indicated that the community structures of intestinal microbiota were shifted by enrofloxacin. Most of the mRNA transcripts and the anti-microbial drug resistance genes increased with increasing concentrations of enrofloxacin. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing of control and enrofloxacin treated fecal suspensions provided valuable information of affected bacterial taxa down to the species level, and the community transcriptomic analyses using mRNA revealed the functional gene expression responses of the changed bacterial communities by enrofloxacin.

PMID:
22321759
DOI:
10.1016/j.anaerobe.2012.01.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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