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Plant Cell Environ. 2012 Jul;35(7):1329-43. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02492.x. Epub 2012 Mar 8.

Ornithine-delta-aminotransferase and proline dehydrogenase genes play a role in non-host disease resistance by regulating pyrroline-5-carboxylate metabolism-induced hypersensitive response.

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Plant Biology Division, The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, 2510 Sam Noble Pkwy., Ardmore, Oklahoma 73402, USA.


Non-host disease resistance involves the production of hypersensitive response (HR), a programmed cell death (PCD) that occurs at the site of pathogen infection. Plant mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and red-ox changes play a major role in regulating such cell death. Proline catabolism reactions, especially pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) accumulation, are known to produce ROS and contribute to cell death. Here we studied important genes related to proline synthesis and catabolism in the defence against host and non-host strains of Pseudomonas syringae in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis. Our results show that ornithine delta-aminotransferase (δOAT) and proline dehydrogenases (ProDH1 and ProDH2) are involved in the defence against non-host pathogens. Silencing of these genes in N. benthamiana delayed occurrence of HR and favoured non-host pathogen growth. Arabidopsis mutants for these genes compromised non-host resistance and showed a decrease in non-host pathogen-induced ROS. Some of the genes involved in proline metabolism were also induced by a pathogen-carrying avirulence gene, indicating that proline metabolism is influenced during effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Our results demonstrate that δOAT and ProDH enzyme-mediated steps produce ROS in mitochondria and regulate non-host HR, thus contributing to non-host resistance in plants.

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