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J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2012;47(3):389-97. doi: 10.1080/10934529.2012.646099.

Levels and distribution of synthetic musks and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sludge collected from Guangdong Province.

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State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environment and Resources, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China.


The levels and distribution of six polycyclic musks, three nitromusks and 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in sludge collected from 19 municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in six cities in Guangdong Province, China. PAHs were detected in all of the sludge samples, and the levels of the total 15 PAHs ranged from 177.2-4421.8 μg/kg dry weight (dw). Four polycyclic musks, 4-acetyl-1,1-dimethyl-6-tert-butylindan (ADBI), 6-acetyl-1,1,2,3,3,5-hexamethylindan (AHMI), 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta (g) -2-benzopyran (HHCB) and 7-acetyl -1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro naphthalene (AHTN), were found in these samples. The total concentrations of polycyclic musks varied from 794.4-12960.3 μg/kg dw, with HHCB and AHTN being the main components. Of the three nitromusks, 2,6-dinitro-3-methoxy-4-tert- butyl - toluene (MA) was only found in one sludge sample at the limit of detection (LOD) level, while 1-tert-butyl-3,5-dimethyl-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (Musk xylene, MX) and 4-acetyl-1-tert-butyl-3,5-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzene (Musk ketone, MK) were found at levels ranging from the LOD to 65.8 μg/kg dw and LOD to 172.7 μg/kg dw, respectively, in most of the sludge samples. The PAHs, polycyclic musks and nitro musks were also shown to have various distribution patterns, possibly due to their different wastewater sources and wastewater treatment technology.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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