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Sensors (Basel). 2011;11(2):1489-525. doi: 10.3390/s110201489. Epub 2011 Jan 26.

Estimating three-dimensional orientation of human body parts by inertial/magnetic sensing.

Author information

1
The BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Piazza Martiri della Libertà 33, 56124 Pisa, Italy. sabatini@sssup.it

Abstract

User-worn sensing units composed of inertial and magnetic sensors are becoming increasingly popular in various domains, including biomedical engineering, robotics, virtual reality, where they can also be applied for real-time tracking of the orientation of human body parts in the three-dimensional (3D) space. Although they are a promising choice as wearable sensors under many respects, the inertial and magnetic sensors currently in use offer measuring performance that are critical in order to achieve and maintain accurate 3D-orientation estimates, anytime and anywhere. This paper reviews the main sensor fusion and filtering techniques proposed for accurate inertial/magnetic orientation tracking of human body parts; it also gives useful recipes for their actual implementation.

KEYWORDS:

Kalman filtering; human body motion tracking; inertial/magnetic sensing; quaternion; sensor fusion; strap-down inertial navigation

PMID:
22319365
PMCID:
PMC3274035
DOI:
10.3390/s110201489
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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