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Int J Obstet Anesth. 2012 Apr;21(2):163-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ijoa.2011.10.008. Epub 2012 Feb 10.

Tramadol in pregnancy and lactation.

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Department of Anaesthesia and Pain Medicine, King Edward Memorial Hospital for Women, Subiaco, Australia.


Tramadol produces analgesic effects through both non-opioid and weak opioid activity and is commonly used to treat mild to moderate pain. It has been in use for over 30 years and has a well-established safety profile in the general population. Since tramadol is not licensed for use in pregnancy and lactation, there is limited clinical research on its use in this patient population. A systematic review was undertaken of articles published in English before June 2011, searching Pubmed, Medline, CINAHL, Embase and Cochrane databases using the terms 'tramadol and pregnancy', 'tramadol and breastfeeding', 'tramadol and lactation', and 'tramadol and neonate'.

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