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Arch Med Sci. 2011 Jun;7(3):405-13. doi: 10.5114/aoms.2011.23403. Epub 2011 Jul 11.

The protective effects of Ambroxol in Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced pneumonia in rats.

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Department of Internal Medicine, Minhang District Central Hospital, Ruijin Hospital Group, Shanghai, PR China.



To evaluate the effect of Ambroxol on the pulmonary surfactant (PS) in rat pneumonia induced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA).


The pneumonic rats were obtained by injecting ATCC27853 intratracheally. One hundred and twenty SD rats were randomized into four groups: normal saline and Ambroxol was injected intraperitoneally following PA challenge in the PA/NS and PA/AM group; the other two groups were NS/AM and NS/NS. The wet/dry weight ratio (W/D), and pathological changes were assayed. Total proteins (TP), total phospholipid (TPL), and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were analysed. Some BALF was cultured for colony counts. Ultrastructural change of the lung was observed by electron microscopy.


The W/D ratio in the PA/AM group was lower than that in the PA/NS group; both were higher than that in the NS/NS group (p < 0.05). There were more neutrophils in the PA/NS group than in the PA/AM group (p < 0.05), and more in the PA/AM group than in the NS/NS group (p < 0.05). The ratio of DSPC/TPL and DSPC/TP in the BALF in PA/NS group was lower than that in the PA/AM group; DSPC/TPL and DSPC/TP ratios also increased in the NS/AM group. The PA colony numbers in the PA/AM group were lower than in the PA/NS group (p > 0.05). In the PA/NS group, vacuolation occurred in the lamellar body of alveolar type 2 cells (AT2) and the PS layer was rough and broken in some areas. In the PA/AM group, the degree of vacuolation of the lamellar body was less than in the PA/NS group.


Ambroxol could protect rats from pneumonia by improving the level of endogenous PS, especially DPPC.


Ambroxol; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; bronchoalveolar lavage; pneumonia; pulmonary surfactant

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