Send to

Choose Destination
Phlebology. 2012 Mar;27 Suppl 1:114-8. doi: 10.1258/phleb.2012.012S19.

Clinical, aetiological, anatomical and pathological classification (CEAP): gold standard and limits.

Author information

Department of Dermatology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.


The first CEAP (clinical, aetiological, anatomical and pathological elements) consensus document was published after a consensus conference of the American Venous Forum, held at the sixth annual meeting of the AVF in February 1994 in Maui, Hawaii. In the following years the CEAP classification was published in many international journals and books which has led to widespread international use of the CEAP classification since 1995. The aim of this paper is to review the benefits and limits of CEAP from the available literature. In an actual Medline analysis with the keywords 'CEAP' and 'venous insufficiency', 266 publications using the CEAP classification in venous diseases are available. The CEAP classification was accepted in the venous community and used in scientific publications, but in most of the cases only the clinical classification was used. Limitations of the first version including a lack of clear definition of clinical signs led to a revised version. The CEAP classification is the gold standard of classification of chronic venous disorders today. Nevertheless for proper use some facts have to be taken into account: the CEAP classification is not a severity classification, C2 summarizes all kinds of varicose veins, in C3 it may be difficult to separate venous and other reasons for oedema, and corona phlebectatica is not included in the classification. Further revisions of the CEAP classification may help to overcome the still-existing deficits.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Atypon
Loading ...
Support Center