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J Sci Food Agric. 2012 Aug 15;92(10):2055-61. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.5581. Epub 2012 Feb 6.

Incorporation of pulse flours of different particle size in relation to pita bread quality.

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Food Science Department, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.



To increase pulse consumption, pita bread was fortified with pulse flours milled from green lentils, navy beans and pinto beans, which were ground to produce fine and coarse flours. Pita breads were prepared using composite flours containing pulse flours (25, 50, 75%) and wheat flour or 100% pulse flours and adjusting the amount of water required for mixing based on farinograph water absorption. Pita bread quality was evaluated according to diameter, pocket height, specific loaf volume, texture and crust colour.


Blends made from pulse flours with coarse particle size showed higher rates of water absorption. All composite flours and 100% pulse flours produced pitas with pockets, confirming their suitability for this product. Crust colour of pitas was affected less by navy bean flour than by lentil flour. Pita breads made with pinto bean flour were superior in texture. Overall, navy and pinto bean flours appeared more suitable for pita bread. Flours with coarse particle sizes produced pitas with better colour and texture. Sensory parameters of pitas containing 25% coarse pinto or navy bean flour were as good as or better than those from the wheat control.


Acceptable pita breads can be made using pulse flours, although the substitution level is limited to 25%.

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