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Purinergic Signal. 2012 Jun;8(2):327-37. doi: 10.1007/s11302-012-9292-9. Epub 2012 Feb 5.

Adenosine A1 receptor regulates osteoclast formation by altering TRAF6/TAK1 signaling.

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New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA.


Adenosine is an endogenous nucleoside that modulates many physiological processes through four receptor subtypes (A(1), A(2a), A(2b), A(3)). Previous work from our laboratory has uncovered a critical role for adenosine A(1) receptor (A(1) R) in osteoclastogenesis both in vivo and in vitro. Our current work focuses on understanding the details of how A(1) R modulates the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced signaling in osteoclastogenesis. Osteoclasts were generated from mouse bone marrow precursors in the presence of RANKL and macrophage-colony stimulating factor. A pharmacological antagonist of A(1) R (DPCPX) inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation, including osteoclast-specific genes (Acp5, MMP9, β(3) Integrin, α(v) Integrin, and CTSK) and osteoclast-specific transcription factors such as c-fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) expression in a dose-dependent manner. DPCPX also inhibited RANKL-induced activation of NF-κB and JNK/c-Jun but had little effect on other mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 and Erk). Finally, immunoprecipitation analysis showed that blockade of A(1)R resulted in disruption of the association of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), a signaling event that is important for activation of NF-κB and JNK, suggesting the participation of adenosine/A(1)R in early signaling of RANKL. Collectively, these data demonstrated an important role of adenosine, through A(1)R in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis.

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