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Langmuir. 2012 Mar 6;28(9):4325-33. doi: 10.1021/la204026j. Epub 2012 Feb 23.

Ordered self-assembled locked nucleic acid (LNA) structures on gold(111) surface with enhanced single base mismatch recognition capability.

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Department of Biological Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata, India.


Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a conformationally restricted nucleic acid analogue, which is potentially a better alternative than DNA for application in the nucleic acid based biosensor technologies, due to its efficient and sequence-specific DNA/RNA detection capability and lack of molecule-surface interaction on solid surfaces, compared to DNA. We report, for the first time, a straightforward way (based on simple immersion method) of generating an ordered self-assembled LNA monolayer, which is bioactive, onto a gold(111) surface. This layer is capable of giving rise to a stronger DNA recognition signal (4-4.5 times) than its DNA counterpart, and importantly, it can differentiate between a fully complementary DNA target and that having a single base mismatch, where the mismatch discrimination ratio is almost two times compared to the ratio relevant in case of DNA-based detection. We have presented high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) topographs of the well-defined one-dimensional LNA molecular ordering (few hundred nanometers long) and of the two-dimensional ordered assembly formed over a large area (7 μm × 7 μm) due to parallel positioning of the one-dimensional ordered arrangements. The effects of different parameters such as LNA concentration and incubation time on LNA self-assembly have been investigated. Further, reflection absorption infrared (RAIR) spectroscopy has been applied to obtain information about the orientation of the surface-immobilized LNA molecules for the first time. It has been found that the LNA molecules undergo an orientational transition from the "lying down" to the "upright" configuration in a time scale of few hours.

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