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J Am Geriatr Soc. 1990 Oct;38(10):1093-6.

Reference values for the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in octo- and nonagenarians.

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Department of Psychiatry, Leiden University, The Netherlands.


The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used in a population survey of all inhabitants of Leiden, the Netherlands, over 85 years (n = 1258). In this paper we report on 532 subjects without neurological or psychiatric disease. Results show that the median score and lowest quartile cut-off score remain high until the tenth decade (median score = 28, lowest quartile cut-off score = 26). Thus age, in itself, is not a major limitation in using the MMSE. In this study a comparatively low level of education (the majority had 6 to 7 years of education) did not affect the results on the MMSE in a negative way, nor did we find an association with the use of psychoactive drugs.

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