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Ann Thorac Surg. 2012 Mar;93(3):921-7; discussion 927-88. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2011.11.043. Epub 2012 Jan 31.

Radiofrequency ablation for stage I non-small cell lung cancer: management of locoregional recurrence.

Author information

1
Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. mlanuti@partners.org

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

This study characterizes the management of locoregional recurrence (LRR) in patients with high-risk stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with lung radiofrequency ablation (RFA).

METHODS:

Consecutive patients with biopsy-proven stage I NSCLC underwent computed tomography-guided lung RFA from December 2003 to 2010. All patients were deemed medically inoperable or refused an operation. RFA was performed with curative intent.

RESULTS:

Fifty-five ablations were performed in 45 patients (age, 51 to 89 years) with stage I NSCLC. At a median follow-up of 32 months, LRR occurred in 21 (38%) within a mean of 12±10 (range, 1-44) months from RFA. Recurrence was observed locally in the tumor bed in 18 (33%), in regional nodes in 4 (7%), and distant in 2 (4%). The mean maximal tumor diameter was 2.3±1.3 (range, 0.7 to 4.5) cm. In tumors exceeding 3 cm, 10 (80%) were associated with LRR. Recurrent lesions were treated with repeat RFA (5), radiotherapy (8), chemoradiotherapy (5), and chemotherapy (2). Local control was achieved by repeat RFA in 2 of 5 (40%) or by radiotherapy in 8 lesions (100%), with 2 regional nodal failures (median follow-up, 40±13 months). Overall survival among patients who did or did not experience LRR was similar (32% to 35%). Repeat RFA was not associated with any significant complications or procedure-related 30-day mortality.

CONCLUSIONS:

Lung RFA is associated with increased rates of local failure in tumors exceeding 3 cm and in contact with larger segmental vessels. Patients with local failure can be promptly salvaged with SBRT or repeat RFA, without detriment to overall survival.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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