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BJU Int. 2012 Feb;109(4):508-13; discussion 513-4. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2011.10900.x. Epub 2012 Feb 1.

Prostate-specific antigen velocity (PSAV) risk count improves the specificity of screening for clinically significant prostate cancer.

Author information

1
Department of Urology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

•  To determine whether the prostate-specific antigen velocity (PSAV) risk count (i.e. the number of times PSAV exceeds a specific threshold) could increase the specificity of screening for prostate cancer and potentially life-threatening tumours.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

•  From 1989 to 2001, we calculated two serial PSAV measurements in 18 214 prostate cancer screening-study participants, of whom 1125 (6.2%) were diagnosed with prostate cancer. •  The PSAV risk count was determined as the number of PSAV measurements of >0.4 ng/mL/year (0, 1, or 2). •  We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and reclassification analyses to examine the ability of PSAV risk count to predict screen-detected and high-grade prostate cancer.

RESULTS:

•  The PSAV was >0.4 ng/mL/year twice (risk count 2) in 40% of prostate cancer cases compared with only 4% of those with no cancer (P < 0.001). •  After adjusting for age and PSA level, a PSAV risk count of 2 was associated with an 8.2-fold increased risk of prostate cancer (95% confidence interval 7.0-9.6, P < 0.001) and 5.4-fold increased risk of Gleason score 8-10 prostate cancer on biopsy. •  Compared with a model with age and PSA level, the addition of the PSAV risk count significantly improved discrimination (area under the ROC curve 0.625 vs 0.725, P= 0.031) and reclassified individuals for the risk of high-grade prostate cancer (net reclassification, P < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS:

•  Sustained rises in PSA indicate a significantly greater risk of prostate cancer, particularly high-grade disease. •  Compared with men with a risk count of ≤1, those with two PSAV measurements of >0.4 ng/mL/year (risk count 2) had an 8-fold increased risk of prostate cancer and 5.4-fold increased risk of Gleason 8-10 disease on biopsy, adjusting for age and PSA level. •  Compared to PSA alone, PSAV risk count may be useful in reducing unnecessary biopsies and the diagnosis of low-risk prostate cancer.

PMID:
22296334
PMCID:
PMC3338148
DOI:
10.1111/j.1464-410X.2011.10900.x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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