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Arch Iran Med. 2012 Feb;15(2):70-5. doi: 012152/AIM.003.

Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and its associated risk factors: the first report from Iran using both microalbuminuria and urine sediment.

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Nephrology Research Center, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.



The incidence of major risk factors of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the world is on the rise, and it is expected that this incidence and prevalence, particularly in developing countries, will continue to increase. Using data on urinary sediment and microalbuminuria, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of CKD in northeast Iran.


In a cross-sectional study, the prevalence of CKD in a sample of 1557 regionally representative people, aged ≥ 18 years, was analyzed. CKD was determined based on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and microalbuminuria. Life style data, urine and blood samples were collected. Urine samples without any proteinuria in the initial dipstick test were checked for qualitative microalbuminuria. If the latter was positive, quantitative microalbuminuria was evaluated.


1557 subjects with a mean age of 56.76 ± 12.04 years were enrolled in this study. Based on the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) equation, 137 subjects (8.89%) were categorized as CKD stages III-V. Based on urine abnormalities, the prevalence of combined CKD stages I and II was 10.63%, and based on macro- and microalbuminuria it was 14.53%. The prevalence of CKD was significantly associated with sex, age, marital status, education, diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HTN), ischemic heart disease (IHD), waist to hip ratio, myocardial infarction (MI), and cerebrovascular accident (CVA).


CKD and its main risk factors are common and represent a definite health threat in this region of Iran. Using and standardizing less expensive screening tests in low resource countries could be a good alternative that may improve the outcome through early detection of CKD.

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