Send to

Choose Destination
Mol Cancer. 2012 Jan 30;11:5. doi: 10.1186/1476-4598-11-5.

miR-31 and its host gene lncRNA LOC554202 are regulated by promoter hypermethylation in triple-negative breast cancer.

Author information

Department of Molecular Cardiology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.



microRNAs have been established as powerful regulators of gene expression in normal physiological as well as in pathological conditions, including cancer progression and metastasis. Recent studies have demonstrated a key role of miR-31 in the progression and metastasis of breast cancer. Downregulation of miR-31 enhances several steps of the invasion-metastasis cascade in breast cancer, i.e., local invasion, extravasation and survival in the circulation system, and metastatic colonization of distant sites. miR-31 exerts its metastasis-suppressor activity by targeting a cohort of pro-metastatic genes, including RhoA and WAVE3. The molecular mechanisms that lead to the loss of miR-31 and the activation of its pro-metastatic target genes during these specific steps of the invasion-metastasis cascade are however unknown.


In the present report, we identify promoter hypermethylation as one of the major mechanisms for silencing miR-31 in breast cancer, and in the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines of basal subtype, in particular. miR-31 maps to the intronic sequence of a novel long non-coding (lnc)RNA, LOC554202 and the regulation of its transcriptional activity is under control of LOC554202. Both miR-31 and the host gene LOC554202 are down-regulated in the TNBC cell lines of basal subtype and over-expressed in the luminal counterparts. Treatment of the TNBC cell lines with either a de-methylating agent alone or in combination with a de-acetylating agent resulted in a significant increase of both miR-31 and its host gene, suggesting an epigenetic mechanism for the silencing of these two genes by promoter hypermethylation. Finally, both methylation-specific PCR and sequencing of bisulfite-converted DNA demonstrated that the LOC554202 promoter-associated CpG island is heavily methylated in the TNBC cell lines and hypomethylated in the luminal subtypes.


Loss of miR-31 expression in TNBC cell lines is attributed to hypermethylation of its promoter-associated CpG island. Together, our results provide the initial evidence for a mechanism by which miR-31, an important determinant of the invasion metastasis cascade, is regulated in breast cancer.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for BioMed Central Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center