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Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2011 Dec;15(12):1429-44.

The protective effects of fish oil and artichoke on hepatocellular carcinoma in rats.

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National Research Centre, Medicinal Chemistry Department, Dokki Giza, Egypt.



The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of fish oil and Artichoke (Cynara scolymus I.) against diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced hepatocellular carcinoma in rats.


Animals were divided into 8 groups. Group 1, control rats. Group 2: rats injected with single dose of DEN (100 mg/kg body weight). Groups 3-8 supplemented with different concentrations of either fish oil or artichoke for 25 days before DEN injection.


DEN treatment revealed a significant decrease in tissue xanthine oxidase (XO), glutathione, glutathione-s-transferase (GST), and a marked increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and ferritin levels showed a significant increase. A significant increase in serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin levels were found. A significant decrease in tissue total proteins and serum albumin was observed. The administration of DEN affected the liver cell through occurrence of hepatic cellular degeneration and necrosis. Treatment with fish oil (5%, 10%) or artichoke heads or leaves (0.5, 1 g) for 25 days led to significant amelioration of DEN-induced changes in the biochemical parameters. An almost normal histological architecture of the liver, in treated groups, was showed as compared to the controls.


The results pointed that 10% fish oil and 1 g% leaves of artichoke succeeded to protect from hepatocellular carcinoma to a certain degree. In addition, they may be considered as protective foods against angiogenesis.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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