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Neuroimage. 2012 Apr 2;60(2):1517-27. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.01.067. Epub 2012 Jan 18.

Dynamic retrospective filtering of physiological noise in BOLD fMRI: DRIFTER.

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Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.


In this article we introduce the DRIFTER algorithm, which is a new model based Bayesian method for retrospective elimination of physiological noise from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. In the method, we first estimate the frequency trajectories of the physiological signals with the interacting multiple models (IMM) filter algorithm. The frequency trajectories can be estimated from external reference signals, or if the temporal resolution is high enough, from the fMRI data. The estimated frequency trajectories are then used in a state space model in combination of a Kalman filter (KF) and Rauch-Tung-Striebel (RTS) smoother, which separates the signal into an activation related cleaned signal, physiological noise, and white measurement noise components. Using experimental data, we show that the method outperforms the RETROICOR algorithm if the shape and amplitude of the physiological signals change over time.

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