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J Psychosom Res. 2012 Feb;72(2):111-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2011.11.004. Epub 2011 Dec 22.

Validation of the three-factor model of the PSQI in a large sample of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients.

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Department of General Internal Medicine, Infectious Diseases and Psychosomatic Medicine, University Hospital Ghent, Belgium.



To evaluate whether a 3-factor model of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scale would fit the constellation of sleep disturbances in patients with a diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).


Consecutive CFS patients filled out the PSQI. Scores from this self-report questionnaire were examined with exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).


413 CFS patients were included for analysis in this study. CFA showed that the 7 PSQI component scores clustered into the 3 factors reported by Cole et al. (2006), i.e. Sleep Efficiency, Perceived Sleep Quality and Daily Disturbances. In contrast with the single-factor and all 2-factor models, all factor loadings were significant, and all goodness-of-fit values were acceptable.


In CFS, the PSQI operates as a 3-factor scoring model as initially seen in healthy and depressed older adults. The separation into 3 discrete factors suggests the limited usefulness of the global PSQI as a single factor for the assessment of subjective sleep quality, as also evidenced by a low Cronbach's alpha (0.64) in this patient sample.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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