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J Biomech. 2012 Apr 5;45(6):1076-83. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2011.12.012. Epub 2012 Jan 26.

Modeling and experimentation of bone drilling forces.

Author information

1
Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.

Abstract

Prediction and control of bone drilling forces are critical to the success of many orthopaedic operations. Uncontrolled and large forces can cause drill-bit breakage, drill breakthrough, excessive heat generation, and mechanical damage to the bone. This paper presents a mechanistic model for prediction of thrust forces and torques experienced during bone drilling. The model incorporates the radially varying drill-bit geometry and cutting conditions analytically, while capturing the material and friction properties empirically through a specific energy formulation. The forces from the chisel edge are modeled by considering the indentation process that occurs in the vicinity of the drill-bit axis. A procedure is outlined to calibrate the specific energies, where only a small number of calibration experiments are required for a wide range of drilling conditions and drill-bit geometry. The calibration parameters for the cortical portions of bovine tibia are identified through drilling tests. Subsequently, a series of validation tests are conducted under different feed rates and spindle speeds. The thrust forces and torques were observed to vary considerably between bones from different animals. The forces from the model were seen to match well with those from the experimentation within the inherent variations from the bone characteristics. The model can be used to select favorable drilling conditions, to assist in robotic surgeries, and to design optimal orthopaedic drill bits.

PMID:
22281407
DOI:
10.1016/j.jbiomech.2011.12.012
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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