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Indian J Nephrol. 2012 Jan;22(1):18-25. doi: 10.4103/0971-4065.91185.

Predictors of quality of life of hemodialysis patients in India.

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Department of Nephrology, M S Ramaiah Memorial Hospital, Bengaluru, India.


Little is known about the quality of life and survival in the patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD) in India. Poor nutrition and dialysis noncompliance is common. This study investigates the factors that affect the quality of life (QoL) in HD patients in India. This cross-sectional study included 78 patients on HD for ≥ two months. Demographic, nutritional, functional subjective global assessment and Kidney Disease Quality of Life (KDQOL-36) assessments were done. Predictors of QoL were assessed by regression analysis. The mean calorie and protein intake were 1245 ± 116.9 kcal and 0.86 ± 0.19 g/kg/day respectively. Male gender (OR = 9.68), serum parathyroid hormone PTH <150 pg/ml (OR = 0.03), age ≤65 years (OR = 1.25), no catheter use (OR = 1.9) and hospitalizations (OR = 0.11), were independent predictors of total score ≥50. Independent predictors of physical component summary (PCS) >25 were male gender (OR = 5.06) and urine output at start of dialysis (OR = 1.05). Independent predictors of mental component summary (MCS) ≥25 were male gender (OR = 11.02), serum PTH > 150 pg/ml (OR = 0.15), daily protein intake of >0.8 g/kg and caloric intake >20 (OR = 10.8). Patients with urine output >1 liter per day had more hypotensive episodes during dialysis (r = 0.56, P = 0.045), more headaches (r = 0.63, P = 0.006) but that did not affect the PCS significantly. Low PTH (<150 pg/ml) (OR = 1.29), multiple access failures (OR = 3.36) and total score ≤50 (OR = 0.09) were independently associated with increased hospitalization. Males, patients with serum PTH >150 pg/ml and those not on catheter had better total score. Though patients with higher urine output had better PCS, those with output >1 liter had higher incidence of hypotension and dialysis-related headache. Protein-energy malnutrition affected the MCS significantly. Dialysis noncompliance seen in one-fourth of the population did not affect the scores significantly.


Hemodialysis; kidney disease quality of life-36; malnutrition; noncompliance; quality of life

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