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Free Radic Res. 2012 Apr;46(4):382-419. doi: 10.3109/10715762.2011.653969.

Mechanisms of free radical-induced damage to DNA.

Author information

1
Biochemical Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA. miral@nist.gov

Abstract

Endogenous and exogenous sources cause free radical-induced DNA damage in living organisms by a variety of mechanisms. The highly reactive hydroxyl radical reacts with the heterocyclic DNA bases and the sugar moiety near or at diffusion-controlled rates. Hydrated electron and H atom also add to the heterocyclic bases. These reactions lead to adduct radicals, further reactions of which yield numerous products. These include DNA base and sugar products, single- and double-strand breaks, 8,5'-cyclopurine-2'-deoxynucleosides, tandem lesions, clustered sites and DNA-protein cross-links. Reaction conditions and the presence or absence of oxygen profoundly affect the types and yields of the products. There is mounting evidence for an important role of free radical-induced DNA damage in the etiology of numerous diseases including cancer. Further understanding of mechanisms of free radical-induced DNA damage, and cellular repair and biological consequences of DNA damage products will be of outmost importance for disease prevention and treatment.

PMID:
22276778
DOI:
10.3109/10715762.2011.653969
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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