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PLoS One. 2012;7(1):e27687. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027687. Epub 2012 Jan 20.

Preoperative proteinuria is associated with long-term progression to chronic dialysis and mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.

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  • 1Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.



Preoperative proteinuria is associated with post-operative acute kidney injury (AKI), but whether it is also associated with increased long-term mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is unknown.


We studied 925 consecutive patients undergoing CABG. Demographic and clinical data were collected prospectively, and patients were followed for a median of 4.71 years after surgery. Proteinuria, according to dipstick tests, was defined as mild (trace to 1+) or heavy (2+ to 4+) according to the results of the dipstick test. A total of 276 (29.8%) patients had mild proteinuria before surgery and 119 (12.9%) patients had heavy proteinuria. During the follow-up, the Cox proportional hazards model demonstrated that heavy proteinuria (hazard ratio [HR], 27.17) was an independent predictor of long-term ESRD. There was a progressive increased risk for mild proteinuria ([HR], 1.88) and heavy proteinuria ([HR], 2.28) to predict all-cause mortality compared to no proteinuria. Mild ([HR], 2.57) and heavy proteinuria ([HR], 2.70) exhibited a stepwise increased ratio compared to patients without proteinuria for long-term composite catastrophic outcomes (mortality and ESRD), which were independent of the baseline GFR and postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI).


Our study demonstrated that proteinuria is a powerful independent risk factor of long-term all-cause mortality and ESRD after CABG in addition to preoperative GFR and postoperative AKI. Our study demonstrated that proteinuria should be integrated into clinical risk prediction models for long-term outcomes after CABG. These results provide a high priority for future renal protective strategies and methods for post-operative CABG patients.

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