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Trop Med Int Health. 2012 Apr;17(4):430-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2011.02953.x. Epub 2012 Jan 24.

Improved equity in measles vaccination from integrating insecticide-treated bednets in a vaccination campaign, Madagascar.

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  • 1Global Immunization Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.



To evaluate the effect of integrating ITN distribution on measles vaccination campaign coverage in Madagascar.


Nationwide cross-sectional survey to estimate measles vaccination coverage, nationally, and in districts with and without ITN integration. To evaluate the effect of ITN integration, propensity score matching was used to create comparable samples in ITN and non-ITN districts. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated via log-binomial models. Equity ratios, defined as the coverage ratio between the lowest and highest household wealth quintile (Q), were used to assess equity in measles vaccination coverage.


National measles vaccination coverage during the campaign was 66.9% (95% CI 63.0-70.7). Among the propensity score subset, vaccination campaign coverage was higher in ITN districts (70.8%) than non-ITN districts (59.1%) (RR=1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.6). Among children in the poorest wealth quintile, vaccination coverage was higher in ITN than in non-ITN districts (Q1; RR=2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.8) and equity for measles vaccination was greater in ITN districts (equity ratio=1.0, 95% CI 0.8-1.3) than in non-ITN districts (equity ratio=0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.8).


Integration of ITN distribution with a vaccination campaign might improve measles vaccination coverage among the poor, thus providing protection for the most vulnerable and difficult to reach children.

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