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J Toxicol Pathol. 2011 Jun;24(2):113-24. doi: 10.1293/tox.24.113. Epub 2011 Jun 30.

Pathology in Continuous Infusion Studies in Rodents and Non-Rodents and ITO (Infusion Technology Organisation)-Recommended Protocol for Tissue Sampling and Terminology for Procedure-Related Lesions.


Many variables may affect the outcome of continuous infusion studies. The results largely depend on the experience of the laboratory performing these studies, the technical equipment used, the choice of blood vessels and hence the surgical technique as well the quality of pathological evaluation. The latter is of major interest due to the fact that the pathologist is not involved until necropsy in most cases, i.e. not dealing with the complicated surgical or in-life procedures of this study type. The technique of tissue sampling during necropsy and the histology processing procedures may influence the tissues presented for evaluation, hence the pathologist may be a source of misinterpretation. Therefore, ITO proposes a tissue sampling procedure and a standard nomenclature for pathological lesions for all sites and tissues in contact with the port-access and/or catheter system.


beagle; continuous infusion; non-rodents; pathology; rodents; terminology; tissue sampling

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