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Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today. 2011 Dec;93(4):291-7. doi: 10.1002/bdrc.20219.

Cardiac developmental toxicity.

Author information

1
Department of Bioengineering, Binghamton University, New York 13902, USA.

Abstract

Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a highly prevalent problem with mostly unknown origins. Many cases of CHD likely involve an environmental exposure coupled with genetic susceptibility, but practical and ethical considerations make nongenetic causes of CHD difficult to assess in humans. The development of the heart is highly conserved across all vertebrate species, making animal models an excellent option for screening potential cardiac teratogens. This review will discuss exposures known to cause cardiac defects, stages of heart development that are most sensitive to teratogen exposure, benefits and limitations of animal models of cardiac development, and future considerations for cardiac developmental toxicity research.

PMID:
22271678
PMCID:
PMC3717573
DOI:
10.1002/bdrc.20219
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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