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Gene Regul Syst Bio. 2012;6:15-42. doi: 10.4137/GRSB.S8044. Epub 2011 Dec 21.

Identification of cis-Regulatory Elements in the dmyc Gene of Drosophila Melanogaster.

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Biotechnopark Zurich, Molecular Biology Laboratory, University of Zurich-Irchel, Zurich, Switzerland.


Myc is a crucial regulator of growth and proliferation during animal development. Many signals and transcription factors lead to changes in the expression levels of Drosophila myc, yet no clear model exists to explain the complexity of its regulation at the level of transcription. In this study we used Drosophila genetic tools to track the dmyc cis-regulatory elements. Bioinformatics analyses identified conserved sequence blocks in the noncoding regions of the dmyc gene. Investigation of lacZ reporter activity driven by upstream, downstream, and intronic sequences of the dmyc gene in embryonic, larval imaginal discs, larval brain, and adult ovaries, revealed that it is likely to be transcribed from multiple transcription initiation units including a far upstream regulatory region, a TATA box containing proximal complex and a TATA-less downstream promoter element in conjunction with an initiator within the intron 2 region. Our data provide evidence for a modular organization of dmyc regulatory sequences; these modules will most likely be required to generate the tissue-specific patterns of dmyc transcripts. The far upstream region is active in late embryogenesis, while activity of other cis elements is evident during embryogenesis, in specific larval imaginal tissues and during oogenesis. These data provide a framework for further investigation of the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of dmyc.


Drosophila; cis-regulatory module; dmyc; downstream promoter element; enhancer; promoter

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