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Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012 May;20(5):1006-11. doi: 10.1038/oby.2011.372. Epub 2012 Jan 19.

Tissue-specific responses of lipoprotein lipase to dietary macronutrient composition as a predictor of weight gain over 4 years.

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Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Anschutz Medical Center, Aurora, Colorado, USA.


This study evaluated if the effect of dietary macronutrient composition on adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (ATLPL) and skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase (SMLPL) predicted the long-term (over 4 years) changes in body weight and composition in free-living adults. Using a crossover design, 39 healthy subjects (n = 24 normal weight, n = 7 overweight, n = 8 obese) each followed a 2-week isocaloric high-carbohydrate (HC; 55% CHO:25% fat) and high-fat (HF; 30% CHO:50% fat) diet. On day 15 of each diet, biopsies were performed in the fasted state and 6 h after a meal. Body weight and composition were measured annually over 4 years. The outcomes for body weight, fat mass and % body fat were assessed using a linear two-stage mixed model. The mean (±SEM) increase in body weight and fat mass over 4 years was 0.29 ± 0.15 kg/year (P = 0.063) and 0.31 ± 0.15 kg/year (P = 0.051), respectively. The most consistent predictors of future body weight and fat changes were the ΔATLPL and ΔSMLPL responses (0-6 h) to a HC diet/meal. For the HC diet/meal, the subjects who had an increase in ATLPL activity/cell gained more % body fat over 4 years (P = 0.006) whereas subjects who had a decrease in SMLPL activity/g also had an increase in fat mass (P = 0.021). No significant relationships were observed between fasting ATLPL and SMLPL or enzyme responses to meals and any of the outcomes following the HF diet. In free-living adults the variability in tissue-specific lipoprotein lipase (LPL) responsiveness to a HC diet/meal predicts longitudinal changes in body composition.

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