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Int Neurourol J. 2011 Dec;15(4):184-91. doi: 10.5213/inj.2011.15.4.184. Epub 2011 Dec 31.

Antiproliferative factor signaling and interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome.

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Division of Cancer Biology and Therapeutics, Departments of Surgery and Biomedical Sciences, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA.


A unique glycopeptide, antiproliferative factor (APF), has been suggested as a urinary biomarker and potential mediator of long-term bladder disorder Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome. There is no known cause for this disease. Several mechanistic approaches have been employed to address the underlying mechanism whereby APF regulates cellular responses in the bladder epithelium. A summary of recent literature is provided, and is focused on signal transduction pathways and networks that are responsive to APF.


Human antiproliferative factor APF; Interstitial Cystitis; Signal transduction

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