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Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Mar;95(3):678-85. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.111.024786. Epub 2012 Jan 18.

Effect of supplementation with cholecalciferol and calcium on 2-y bone mass accrual in HIV-infected children and adolescents: a randomized clinical trial.

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  • 1Sergievsky Center, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.



Skeletal abnormalities have been reported in HIV-infected children and adolescents. Although the etiology is not well understood, vitamin D deficiency may be involved.


The study objective was to evaluate the effect of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on bone mass accrual in HIV-infected youth.


Perinatally HIV-infected children were randomly assigned to receive vitamin D (100,000 IU cholecalciferol given every 2 mo) and calcium (1 g/d) (supplemented group) or double placebo (placebo group) for 2 y. The total-body bone mineral content (TBBMC), total-body bone mineral density (TBBMD), spine bone mineral content (SBMC), and spine bone mineral density (SBMD) were assessed by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and at 2 annual follow-up visits.


Fifty-nine participants, aged 6-16 y, were randomly assigned to either the supplemented (n = 30) or the placebo (n = 29) group. At enrollment, supplemented and placebo groups did not differ with respect to age, sex, dietary intakes of vitamin D and calcium, mean baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration, TBBMC, TBBMD, SBMC, or SBMD. Significant increases in serum 25(OH)D were observed in the supplemented group but not in the placebo group. TBBMC, TBBMD, SBMC, and SBMD increased significantly at 1 and 2 y in both groups. No between-group differences were observed at any time before or after adjustment for stage of sexual maturation by mixed linear model analysis.


One gram of calcium per day and oral cholecalciferol at a dosage of 100,000 IU every 2 mo administered to HIV-infected children and adolescents did not affect bone mass accrual despite significant increases in serum 25(OH)D concentrations. This trial was registered at as NCT00724178.

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