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J Neuropsychol. 2012 Sep;6(2):192-211. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-6653.2011.02022.x. Epub 2011 Dec 22.

Some supplementary methods for the analysis of WAIS-IV index scores in neuropsychological assessment.

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  • 1School of Psychology, University of Aberdeen, UK.



To develop supplementary methods for the analysis of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) in neuropsychological assessment.




The following methods are made available: (a) provision of traditional confidence intervals (CIs) on index scores, (b) expression of the endpoints of CIs as percentile ranks; (c) quantification of the number of abnormally low index scores exhibited by a case and accompanying estimate of the percentage of the normative population expected to exhibit at least this number of low scores; (d) quantification of the reliability and abnormality of index score deviations from an individual's index score mean (thereby offering an alternative to the pairwise approach to index score comparisons available in the WAIS-IV manual); (e) provision of CIs on an individual's deviation scores or pairwise difference scores, (f) estimation of the percentage of the normative population expected to exhibit at least as many abnormal deviations or abnormal pairwise differences as a case; and (g) calculation of a case's Mahalanobis distance index (MDI), thereby providing a multivariate estimate of the overall abnormality of an index score profile. With the exception of the MDI, all the methods can be applied using tables provided in this paper. However, for ease and speed of application, and to reduce the possibility of clerical error, all the methods have also been implemented in a computer program.


The methods are useful for neuropsychological interpretation of the WAIS-IV.

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